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History of Ahmdenagar
 
 
History of Ahmdenagar        The early history of Ahmednagar starts from 240B.C. when the vicinity is mentioned in the reference to the Mauryan Emperor Ashok. It was not place of any district importance but small hamlets did lay in the neighbourhood of the present city and were regarded as important by-pass places in between Junner and Paithan. The Andhrabrityas – the name of the dynasty of the ruling kings whose powers lasted from B.C. 90 to A.D. 300 and who at the time ruled the Deccan held Ahmednagar in their sway.

     After that The Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruled over Ahmednagar till about 400 A.D. and by the early Chalukya & Western Chalukya kings till 670 A.D. The Rashtrakuta kings then ruled Ahmednagar from 670 to 973 A.D. Govind III (785 to 810) was the mightiest of the Rashtrakutas whose kingdom stretched from Marwar and Rajputana in the north to Tungabhadra river in the south. Then followed the Western Chalukyas whose dynasty ruled from 973 to 1190 A.D. The caves and temple at Harishchandragad in Akola Tahsil were carved and built during this period.
 
 
 
 
History of Ahmdenagar        After the Western Chalukyas , Ahmednagar passed on to the Deogiri Yadavs who ruled from 1170 to 1310. Deogiri ( modern Daulatabad) sventy-four miles north east of Ahmednagar was the capital city of Yadavs. The most notable minister and statesman of this time was Hemadri who invented modi script (comparable to the running English script) and is still being studied by the intelligentsia . Hemadri was indeed a genius and is created with the idea of constructing buildings without the help of lime stone and mortar. His main idea in this is to place well cut stones of medium size across each other and filling upon each other in particular angles in such a manner that walls would be erected forming the shape of temple. Twenty six such temples scattered over the whole district bear a testimony to this. His engineering intelligence is still worth emulating by others.
 
 
 
 
History of Ahmdenagar        The famous king of Yadav was Ramdeorao and his name is mentioned in the great literacy works of saint of Dnyandeo in this Dnyaneshwari, the contemporary of king. This Hemadri was the minister of this most reputed king. Otherwise strong & brave ; the military unpreparedness of king late to his defeat at the hands of Alladin Khilaji, the commander-in-chief of the Moghal king of Delhi, Jallalnddin Khilaji at Devgiri in 1294. This was the first ever invasion of the Musalman kings in the South across the Vindsya mountains. This victory at the very invasion gave a fillip to the Muslim ambition of establishing Muslim stronghold in the Deccan. After repeated invasions the Adam domination came at end in 1318. Maharashtra the began to be ruled by governors appointed from Delhi and stationed at Deogiri. In 1338 Mohommed Tughlak, the emperor of Delhi made Deogiri his capital and changed its name to Daulatabad or the Abode of Wealth. Later on the Tughlak left Daulatabad and the disorderly noblemen of the Emperor harassed the people looting them and burning their houses and palatial buildings. These cruelties laid to a revolt among the Muslim nobleman & leader of one of factions, An Afgan soldier Alladin Hasan Gangu was successful in overthrowing the power of Delhi emperors and establishing an independent sovereign kingdom named after his Brahmin preceptor Gangu Brahmin at Gulbarga in 1347. The kingdom is known as Bahamani or Brahmin kingdom. This kingdom lasted for 150 years ruled by 13 kings after Hasan Gangu Bahamani. Administration was commendable & the frame setup by Hasan Gangu proved to be great strength. It was followed by the succeeding kings, when at last a great famine fell in 1460. It was repeated in 1472 & 1473. During this time the noble men became rather strong & disobedient. To face this administrative calamity, Mohamed Gawan who was prime minister contemplated to bring about a drastic change in the administration. The noble men were greatly disturbed and influenced king. They leveled various charges against Mohamed Gawan. The king was weak enough to believe the charges and foolish enough to order the minister’s execution, a loss which Bahamani power never recovered. Thus poor Gawan put to death in 1487.
 
 
 
 
History of Ahmdenagar        Thereafter the Bahamani kingdom was divided into five independent kingdoms. Ahmednagar was one of them , kown as Nizamshahi. Mohmad Gawan was succeeded in the office of Bahamani minister by Nizam-ul_mulk Bhairi and about the year 1485 Bhir and Ahmednagar were added to his estates. The management of this area was made over to the minister’s son Malik Ahmad, the founder of the Nizamshahi Dynasty of Ahmednagar. First of all Malik Ahmed made his headquarter at Junnar in Poona district.

         In 1486 Nizam-ul-mulk was assassinated and Malik Ahmed became the Prime Minister of the Bahamani Kingdom. While Malik Ahmed was away from the king, the king ordered one of his generals Jahangir Khan to march against Malik Khan. While Jehangir Khan did take upon himself this task Malik Khan was almost unprepared and had a little army with him. But with great courage and unusual tactics, he defeated Jehangir Khan and army of Bahamani kingdom on the open grounds east of Ahmednagar on 28th of May 1490. This victory was called the victory of the garden because on that spot Ahmed Nizam built a palace and laid out a garden. From this time onward Ahmed Nizam continued to attack Daulatabad to lay the country waste. His headquarter, Junnar was far off from Daulatabad , so in 1494 he laid the foundation of a city close to the victory gardens (Bagh Nizam) upon the left bank of Sina river and called it after himself, Ahmednagar. In two years the city is said to have rivaled Bagdad & Cairo splendour.
 
 
 
 
History of Ahmdenagar   Burhan Nizam Shaha ( 1508 to 1553)
         As Burhan Nizam Shaha was a child of seven years, Mukamil Khan Dakhani, an able statesman and general was appointed as Protector of king. When the king reached manhood he married a dancing girl, Amma and also used to drink wine. Mukamil khan did not like this and he retired from public life leaving everything to the young king’s care. In 1523 Bibi Meriem, the sister of Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapur was given in marriage to Burhan and the nuptials were celebrated with great splendour. Asad Khan of Belgaum, the envoy of Adil shah had promised the town of Sholapur as dowry to Burhan Nizam, which he afterwards refused. This raised a quarrel amongst them and led to attacks and counter-attacks resulting into a lasting ill feelings. Burhan Nizam Shah was indeed a great warrior and fighting was his second nature. He spent most of his years in fighting with the Khandesh & Berar kings. He was never afraidof the mighty Bhahadur Shah ,the king of Gujarat. One time the great Bahadur Shah marched against Burhan and stayed in the fort of Ahmednagar for a few months. Burhan Shah was never ruffled by the enemies’ might though he was in league with the kings of Berar and Khandesh. At last Bahadur Shah left Ahmednagar and Burhan Nizam Shah came to terms with the Bahadur Shah’s deputies. Burhan Nizam Shah was a man of great understanding knew the might, value and greatness of Bahadur Shah. He sent one of the saints of Ahmednagar, Shah Tahir to Gujrat and made friends with Bahadur, the Great. Burhan Nizam Shah was in constant alliance with the king of vijaynagar, Ramraja, Hindu king and often attacked Bijapur. At last Burhan Nizam Shah died in 1553 at the age of fifty four after a reign of forty seven years. His body was embalmed and entombed at Karbela in Persia, near the burial place of Hussan the son of Ali, the Prophet. He had two sons , Hussaian and Abdul Kadar by his favourite wife, Amina & two others Shah Ali and Miran Muhmmad Bukar by Bibi Marian , the daughter of Yusuf Adil Shah. He had also another son Shah Haidar married to the daughter of Khvaja Jahan Dakhani.
 
 
 
 
History of Ahmdenagar   Moghals or the rule of Delhi (1636 to 1759)( 1588)
         Shivaji - The Maratha king who rose on powers attacked Ahmednagar and its neighborhood. For the Moghals, Shivaji was a regular terror. Though he did not really possess a strong and large army shivaji’s army resorted to guerrilla warfare and harassed the Moghal army.
         Shah Jahan appointed Aurangzeb as the viceroy in 1636 and again in 1650. Shivaji personally invaded Ahmednagar in 1657 and in 1665. At other times Shivaji’s minister and generals attacked Ahmednagar intermittently. Aurangzeb tried to put an end to the independent kingdom of the Marathas but he never succeeded in this and at last died in Ahmednagar on 21 st of February 1707. His attempts to put down the Maratha failed tragically Shortly after this the fall of the Moghal power in Deccan was completed by the revolt of Chin Killich “Khan (Nizam-ul-Mulk) , the governor of Malva. Ahmednagar was one of the parts of the Deccan which became subject to the Nizam and remained in his hands till his death in 1748.
The Rule of the Marathas (1759 to 1817).
         After the death of Nizam-ul-Mulk there issued a quarrel between his two sons Salabat Jung Ghazi-ud-din . In this political mess the Nizam’s commandant Kavi Jung betrayed the fort of Ahmednagar to the Peshwa, the minister of the Maratha power War followed between the Nizam & the Peshwas & the Nizam was defeated in 1760 at Udgir. Besides other concessions the Nizam confirmed the grant of Ahmednagar and Dualatbad and also gave up the greater part of the province of Ahmednagar, the Nizam was again defeated by the Maratha in 1795 at Kharda. After the death of Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa in 1795, quarrels arose among the Maratha Noblemen. In 1797 Daulatrao Sindia took the fort of Ahmednagar from Bajirao Peshwa, as a price of his help to him to raise him to the post of Peshwa. The famous statesman Nana Fadnavis was imprisoned in Ahmednagar fort in 1797 by Sindia . At last he was released in 1798 but sorely discouraged, Nana Fadnavis died in 1800.
         Bajirao Peshwa was continuously harassed by Yeshwantrao Holkar and Daulatrao Sindia. So he concluded a treaty with the British for the safety of his Ministership, on 31 st December 1802 at Bassein. Now the noblemen had to fight with the British might. General Wellesley attacked Ahmednagar city and captured it. Then he laid a siege to Ahmednagar fort on 9th of August 1803 and captured it of 12 th of August 1803. General Wellesley then returned the fort of the Peshwa soon i.e in 1803 . The Holkar also came to terms with the British. There was widespread disorder in the area due to famine and hundreds were looted, murdered and massacred by the Pendharis . There was a rebellion against the British rule by common people headed b6y Trimbakji Dengale of Sangamner. The British troops soon brought the circumstances under control with the help of their disciplined soldiers . At last a treaty was concluded with Bajirao Peshwa at Poona by Virtue of which the Ahmednagar Fort was handed over to the English.
 
 
 
 
History of Ahmdenagar   British Rule (1817 to 1947 )
         When the British Government took possession of Ahmednagar much of it was almost ruined. Many former rich areas were depopulated because of famine and continuous fighting between the British soldiers and the freedom fighters. They continued to rise in arms taking resort to villages and the hills and mountains-mostly Parner, Jamgao and Akola areas. The Kolies and theBhilsharassed the British troops intermittently. Raghoji Bhangria headed this mutiny. AT last he was caught atPandharpur in 1847 and was immediately hanged.
         During the great freedom Struggle of 1857 (Which the British call Sepoys’ Mutiny Ahmednagar was a scene of considerable disturbance. The active freedom fighters were about 7000 Bhils under the leadership of Bhagoji Naik . They were active in the hilly tracks and especially in the Parner, Jamgao, Rahuri, Kopargaon and Nasik areas. But at last all these attempts to rise against the British failed and the slavery came to stay. By about 1880 it was almost quiet everywhere.
         Lokmanya Tilak organized political movement in the whole of India and was put behind bars by the British Government. But he passes away in 1920 Mahatma Gandhi took up the leadership in 1920 and carried on the responsibility of organizing Civil Disobedience Movements. Thousands offered Satyagraha and courted arrest. The Satyagraha Movements were launched many times between 1920 to 1941. The last unarmed Movement was spontaneously started by all the Indians throughout the length and breadth of the country from 9th of August 1942 upto 1944. All the leaders of India including Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Patel, Rajendra Prasad, Maulana Azad, Subhash Chandara Bose, DR. Syed Mahmood, Shankarrao Deo, were arrested Most of the leaders excepting Gandhi were kept in the Ahmednagar Fort. Jawaharlal Nehru , wrote his famous book. “ The Discovery of India” in Ahmednagar Fort.
         The famous leaders of Ahmednagar Raosaheb Patwardhan was underground for many days. Achyutrao Patwardhan was never arrested by the British since he was carrying on the Freedom Struggle by remaining underground . The veteran leader of Ahmednagar District Senapti Pandurang Mahadeo Bapat was the most fearless and was one of the greatest disciplines of Mahatma Gandhi. He carried on the Mulshi Satyagraha bravely and was arrested in 1937. He was kept behind the bars till India achieved her independence. Senapti Bapat never cared for anything and was ever prepared to lay down his life in the Freedom Struggle.
         India attained her freedom on 15 th of August 1947 and all the brave leaders were released from the imprisonment. The flag salutation ceremony took place on the ramparts of the Ahmednagar Fort at 8 a.m on 15 th August 1947 at the auspicious hands of Acharys Narendra Dev who was interned in the Fort of a long time during the struggle for freedom . It was touching sight worthy to be watched by Gods.
 
 
 
 
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